This report deals with cytogenetics in a broader sense rather than the classical use mainly to describe the chromosome structure and identify abnormalities related to disease. In the age of molecular biology, it is also referred to as molecular cytogenetics.
The scope of cytogenetics includes several technologies besides fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multicolor FISH. Molecular cytogenetics includes application of nanobiotechnology, microarrays, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in vivo imaging, and single molecule detection. Bioinformatics is described briefly as it plays an important role in analyzing data from many of these technologies.
FISH remains the single most important technology in cytogenetics. Several innovations are described of which the most important are single copy FISH, in vivo FISH (imaging of nucleic acids in living cells) and nanotechnology-based FISH. The unique character of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) allows these probes to hybridize to target nucleic acid molecules more rapidly and with higher affinity and specificity compared with DNA probes. PNA-FISH is more suited for rapid diagnosis of infections. RNA-FISH and locked nucleic acids (LNAs), are also described.
The chapter on markets provides a global perspective of the cytogenetics business in the major markets: US, Western Europe (including France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK), and Japan. The total figures for the market are also broken out according to the technologies and major disease areas in which they are applied. Markets figure are given for the year 2015 and estimates are made for the years 2020 and 2025.
The report includes summary profiles of 69 companies relevant to cytogenetics along with their 80 collaborations. Companies developing innovative technologies as well as those supplying equipment/services/reagents are identified.The report text is supplemented with 27 Tables and 9 figures. Selected 200 references are included in the bibliography.