This report reviews the current state-of-art of antiviral approaches including vaccines, pharmaceuticals and innovative technologies for delivery of therapeutics. The introduction starts with a practical classification of viral diseases according to their commercial importance. Various antiviral approaches are described including pharmaceuticals and molecular biological therapies such as gene therapy and RNA interference (RNAi) as well as vaccines for virus infections. Expert opinion is given about the current problems and needs in antiviral therapy. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of antiviral approaches is presented against the background of concept of an ideal antiviral agent.
A novel feature of this report is the use of nanotechnology in virology and its potential for antiviral therapeutics. Interaction of nanoparticles with viruses are described. NanoViricides are polymeric micelles, which act as nanomedicines to destroy viruses. Various methods for local as well as systemic delivery of antiviral agents and vaccines are described. Nanobiotechnology plays an important role in improving delivery of antivirals. Advantages and limitations of delivery of gene-based, antisense and RNAi antiviral therapeutics are discussed.
After a discussion of current therapies of AIDS/HIV and their limitations, new strategies in development of antiviral agents are described. Drug resistance and toxicities are emerging as major treatment challenges. Based on a review of technologies and drugs in development, it can be stated that there are good prospects are of finding a cure for HIV/AIDS in the next decade.
Hepatitis viruses are described with focus on hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the presence of numerous drug candidates in the anti-HCV pipeline, and the commitment of major R&D resources by many pharmaceutical companies, it might still take several years for any new anti-HCV drugs to reach the market.
Various commercially important viruses include herpes simplex (HSV) and human papilloma virus (HPV). There a number of treatments but HSV is not destroyed completely and remains dormant and activates from time to time to cause various clinical manifestations. There is discussion about the role of HPV in cervical cancer and vaccines available now seem to be adequate in preventing HSV-induced cervical cancer.
Markets for antivirals are considered according to viruses and diseases caused by them and also according to management approaches: antiviral drugs, vaccines, MAbs and innovative approaches that include immunological and use of other technologies such as gene therapy, antisense, RNAi and nanobiotechnology. Antiviral markets are estimated starting with 2016 with projections up to the year 2026.
Profiles of 194 companies that are involved in developing various technologies and products are profiled and with 174 collaborations. These include major pharmaceutical companies (12), Biopharmaceutical companies with antiviral products (86), Antiviral drug companies (26) as well as viral vaccine companies (70). The report is supplemented with 53 tables, 15 figures and 550 references from the literature.
Key Topics Covered:
1. Introduction to Virology
2. Antiviral Approaches
3. Vaccines for Virus Infections
4. Role of Nanotechnology in Developing Antiviral Agents
5. Delivery of Antivirals
6. Competitive Assessment of Antiviral Approaches
7. Influenza Viruses
9. Hepatitis Viruses
10. Miscellaneous Commercially Important Virus Infections
11. Viruses with High Impact but Low Commercial Significance