An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.
Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Applications of nanobiotechnology are described according to various therapeutic systems. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well. Of the over 1,000 clinical trials of nanomedicines, approximately 100 are selected and tabulated in major therapeutic areas. Other applications such as for management of biological warfare injuries and poisoning are included. Contribution of nanobiotechnology to nutrition and public health such as supply of purified water are also included.
There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.
Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2015. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2020 and 2025.
Profiles of 252 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 183 collaborations.The report is supplemented with 51 Tables, 31 figures and 800 references to the literature.
Key Topics Covered:
Part I: Applications & Markets
0. Executive Summary
3. Nanotechnologies for Basic Research Relevant to Medicine
4. Nanomolecular Diagnostics
6. Role of Nanotechnology in Biological Therapies
7. Nanodevices & Techniques for Clinical Applications
15. Miscellaneous Healthcare Applications of Nanobiotechnology
16. Nanobiotechnology and Personalized Medicine
18. Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Nanomedicine