This report reviews the current state-of-art of antiviral approaches including vaccines, pharmaceuticals and innovative technologies for delivery of therapeutics. The introduction starts with a practical classification of viral diseases according to their commercial importance. Various antiviral approaches are described including pharmaceuticals and molecular biological therapies such as gene therapy and RNA interference (RNAi) as well as vaccines for virus infections. Expert opinion is given about the current problems and needs in antiviral therapy. SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of antiviral approaches is presented against the background of concept of an ideal antiviral agent.
A novel feature of this report is the use of nanotechnology in virology and its potential for antiviral therapeutics. Interaction of nanoparticles with viruses are described. NanoViricides are polymeric micelles, which act as nanomedicines to destroy viruses. Various methods for local as well as systemic delivery of antiviral agents and vaccines are described. Nanobiotechnology plays an important role in improving delivery of antivirals. Advantages and limitations of delivery of gene-based, antisense and RNAi antiviral therapeutics are discussed.
Various viruses that either occur in epidemics or in tropics and some naturally emerging infectious diseases are described, e.g. viral hemorrhagic fevers such as dengue and West Nile virus infection. These are a constant threat and impossible to anticipate. Some of these lack antiviral agents or vaccines for prevention. Although these include some of the most serious viral disorders, the development of antiviral agents for these is not commercially attractive. Current research and approaches to these virus infections are discussed.
Markets for antivirals are considered according to viruses and diseases caused by them and also according to management approaches: antiviral drugs, vaccines, MAbs and innovative approaches that include immunological and use of other technologies such as gene therapy, antisense, RNAi and nanobiotechnology. Antiviral markets are estimated starting with 2015 with projections up to the year 2025.
Profiles of 194 companies that are involved in developing various technologies and products are profiled and with 173 collaborations. These include major pharmaceutical companies (12), Biopharmaceutical companies with antiviral products (86), Antiviral drug companies (26) as well as viral vaccine companies (70). The report is supplemented with 52 tables, 14 figures and 550 references from the literature.
Key Topics Covered:
1. Introduction to Virology
2. Antiviral Approaches
3. Vaccines for Virus Infections
4. Role of Nanotechnology in Developing Antiviral Agents
5. Delivery of Antivirals
6. Competitive Assessment of Antiviral Approaches
7. Influenza Viruses
9. Hepatitis Viruses
10. Miscellaneous Commercially Important Virus Infections
11. Viruses with High Impact but Low Commercial Significance
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