A strong trend towards installing super- and ultra-supercritical power plants has been evident over the past two decades. Nonetheless, the great majority of installed coal-fired power plants still operate under subcritical steam conditions, and, these plants do not reach performance levels of state-of-the-art power generation technology.
The total capacity of new subcritical power plants has reached a record high due to additional installations over the last five years. Ten countries represent all together more than 85% of the world's total CO2 emissions and large proportions of SO2, NOx and PM emissions from production of electricity and heat using coal and peat - in total about 8.5 Gt of CO2 are emitted from China, the United States, India, Germany, Russia, Japan, South Africa, Australia, Korea and Poland.
The penetration of each AQCS technology is tabulated for the eleven countries which account for 80% of global emissions from 2000, with forecasts of penetration to 2020.
Air Quality has made extraordinary progress in the last two decades, but is it enough? Can this progress keep up with the ever rising demand for energy in the developing world? What will happen in 25 years?
Europe, the United States and Japan have set demanding emissions limits. China, the world's largest emitter, has exceeded these limits, so has Korea. After a slow start, India is now rising to its huge challenge. Indonesia is actively studying both countries to map its own path.
The AQCS technologies are analysed in detail, and co-benefits outlined.
CCS Carbon Capture and Storage has been a successful technology in industry for 30 years. The reasons and economics are analysed and application for the power sector is analysed.
The EU ETS and UN CDM carbon markets - their structure and failures.
Competitive analysis of AQCS vendors.
Key Topics Covered:
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY HELE Secondary air control - AQCS - Air Quality Controls Systems Penetration of AQCS technologies in power sector in leading countries, 2015 Co-benefits Control technology emission reduction effect on all technologies SO2 reduction - FGD NOx reduction, LNB, SCR & SNCR PM Particulate matter Mercury Fly ash - gypsum Acid rain CCS - Carbon capture and storage AQCS vendors Alstom MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Doosan Heavy Industries Babcock & Wilcox Ducon MET Marsulex Installed bases of global AQCS leaders Chinese AQCS vendors
1. THE ENVIRONMENTAL EQUATION Greenhouses gases (GHGs) Air pollutants Primary and secondary reductions in emissions
2. THE EMISSIONS AND THEIR SOURCES Focus of this report Air pollutants 1. Sulphur oxides - SOx 2. Nitrogen oxides - NOx 3. Particulate matter - PM Sources of pollution Stationary and mobile man-made sources of emissions Stationary sources (man-made) Mobile sources (man-made) Natural stationary sources Causes of pollution
3. HELE TECHNOLOGY Supercritical technology What is critical pressure - the three stages? Definitions of pressure - Subcritical - Supercritical - Ultra-supercritical Trend to supercritical and ultra-supercritical power plants Development of supercritical technology SC financing regulations Fluidised bed combustion Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants The materials question Penetration of HELE technology China United States India EU Germany Poland Russia Japan South Africa Australia South Korea
4. OTHER PRIMARY AIR QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES Supply side measures to reduce man made emissions Improved efficiency in energy use Appliance efficiency Demand response Alternative energy sources - Renewables instead of hydrocarbons Use of low sulphur coal, or with lower volatile matter Low-NOx burners (LNB)
5. SECONDARY AQCS, END-OF-PIPE CONTROL MEASURES Penetration of AQCS technologies in leading countries Average cost
6. SO2 - FGD, FLUE GAS DESULPHURISATION Sulphur dioxide - SO2 FGD processes Wet scrubbers Co-benefits of wet FGD Seawater scrubber Lime spray dryer (LSD) Dry scrubbers Co-benefits of dry FGD Furnace or dry sorbent injection (DSI) Co-benefits of DSI Alternative technologies for FGD Wet versus Dry Upgrades to existing wet FGD systems FGD penetration Legislation for FGD in Europe Legislation for FGD in the USA FGD wastewater The history of FGD Economics of FGD Major FGD players FGD demand
7. NOx REDUCTION, SCR & SNCR Nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Primary - Combustion controls LNB OFA FGR Co-benefits of combustion NOx controls Secondary - Post-Combustion NOx Controls Reburning SCR SNCR Hybrid NOx controls Legislation and penetration of LNB and SCR United States China Japan Korea India
8. EUROPE'S MAJOR COAL PLANT EMITTERS OF SO2 & NOx Europe and AQCS
9. PM PARTICULATE MATTER What is particulate matter? Fly ash PM emission standards Primary measures of PM reduction Secondary measures of PM reduction ESP electrostatic precipitators Wet electrostatic precipitators Advantages of ESPs: Disadvantages: ESP penetration ESP manufacturers Cyclones dust collectors (CYC) Advantages of cyclones: Disadvantages: Fabric filters/Baghouses Filter cake HED High efficiency dedusters Wet scrubbers Advantages of wet scrubbers Disadvantages Hybrid technology Co-benefits of PM controls Industrial AQCS applications Some industrial dedusting systems Biomass and coal dedusting Cement, clinker cooler and pre-heater dedusting Pyrolysis, incineration and gasification Glass and ceramic furnaces
10. HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS- MERCURY Mercury emissions Activated carbon injection (ACI) Halogen addition Co-benefit methods for mercury capture
11. FLY ASH - GYPSUM Co-firing with biomass Gypsum
12. ACID RAIN Forms of acid deposition Wet deposition Dry deposition
13. NATIONAL EMISSIONS PROFILES AND FUTURE PROSPECTS United States The power sector The industrial sector European Union The power sector The industrial sector The transport sector China The outlook for air quality to 2040 The industrial sector The transport sector The buildings sector India The power sector The industry sector The transport sector The buildings sector Southeast Asia ASEAN The power sector The industry sector The transport policies The buildings sector National profiles of Southeast Asia Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Philippines Thailand Viet Nam Africa The power sector The industry sector The transport sector The buildings sector
14. CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE Carbon abatement Capture Pre-combustion capture Post-combustion capture Oxy-fuel combustion systems Transport Storage Clusters Cost of CCS Industry experience Carbon capture milestones Natural gas processing Fertiliser production Hydrogen production Coal gasification Iron and steel making Ethanol production Primary recovery Secondary recovery Enhanced, or tertiary recovery Thermally enhanced oil recovery TEOR Chemical injection Gas injection, CO2-EOR Liquid carbon dioxide superfluids Microbial treatment Next generation CO2 EOR Cost of EOR Japanese EOR
15. THE CARBON MARKET AND PRICING Two main types of carbon pricing; emissions trading systems (ETS) and carbon taxes. EU ETS Features of EU ETS phase 3 Outcomes of the EU ETS Countries with the greatest reduction in carbon emissions
16. AQCS SALES
17. AQCS VENDORS
MHPS - Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems
Doosan Heavy Industries
Babcock & Wilcox
Chinese AQCS vendors
Fujian Longking Co Ltd
Zhejiang Feida MHPS High Efficiency Flue Gas Cleaning System Engineering Co Ltd (FMH)
Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co Ltd