Published recently in European Endocrinology, the peer-reviewed journal from touchENDOCRINOLOGY, Jean Claude Mbanya, Juergen Sandow, Wolfgang Landgraf and David R Owens introduce biosynthetic human insulin and insulin analogues as the mainstay of insulin therapy for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, access to human insulin at affordable prices remains a global issue. The world is experiencing an exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes presenting an urgent need to establish effective diabetes therapy in countries burdened by inadequate health care budgets, malnutrition and infectious diseases. Recombinant human insulin has replaced animal insulins and animal-based semisynthetic human insulin thereby available in sufficient quantities and at affordable prices able to provide global access to insulin therapy. In many patients, analog insulins can offer additional clinical benefit, although at a considerably higher price thus severely restricting availability in low income countries. The approval process for recombinant human insulins (i.e. biosimilars) and analogue insulins is highly variable in the developing countries in contrast to Europe and in North America, where it is well established within a strict regulatory framework. This review aims to discuss the future access to human insulin therapy in a global context with an ever increasing burden of diabetes and significant economic implications.
The full peer-reviewed, open-access article is available here:
Disclosure: Jean Claude Mbanya is member of the Sanofi AMESA Diabetes Advisory Board. Juergen Sandow is a consultant to Sanofi Paris and Academic Research Associate. Wolfgang Landgraf is an employee of Sanofi-Aventis Germany. David Owens has received honoraria from Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Sanofi and Takeda for lectures and/or advisory boards.
Note to the Editor
touchENDOCRINOLOGY (a division of Touch Medical Media) publishes European Endocrinology, a peer-reviewed, open access, bi-annual journal specialising in the publication of balanced and comprehensive review articles written by leading authorities to address the most important and salient developments in the field of endocrinology. The aim of these reviews is to break down the high science from 'data-rich' primary papers and provide practical advice and opinion on how this information can help physicians in the day to day clinical setting. Practice guidelines, symposium write-ups, case reports, and original research articles are also featured to promote discussion and learning amongst physicians, clinicians, researchers and related healthcare professionals.